Megan Taylor

front-end dev, volunteacher, news & data junkie, bibliophile, Flyers fan, sci-fi geek and kitteh servant

Thinkful Unit 1 Comprehension Checks

Lesson 1

Assignment 1

Explain in words your grandparents would understand what happens after you type a URL in your web browser and hit ‘Enter’.

Browser reads the URL, finds the rules for talking to another computer, finds the name of the computer serving the webpage, finds which specific webpage you are looking for. From the name of the computer where the webpage lives, the browser can find the computer’s IP address(like a phone number). The browser connects to the IP address (like calling someone and they pick up the phone) and then if it can find the specific webpage you asked for, it shows up on your screen. If it can’t (like if you call and someone picks up but the person you are looking for isn’t home or its a wrong number) then it shows a 404 page.

What is a DNS, and what is its purpose?

DNS is like a phone book for computers. It’s how you can connect to another computer from your own.

What is a server and what is a path, and how do they relate in a URL?

The server is the computer where your webpage lives. The path tells the computer where the file you are looking for is.

Assignment 2

What do the ‘hypertext’ and ‘markup language’ in HTML mean, respectively?

Hypertext is simply the idea of documents that are capable of being linked together.
Markup languages are used to annotate and add semantic structure, or meaning, to a text document.

What is an HTML tag?

Tells the browser what different pieces of text are (list, header, paragraph, etc.)

What’s the difference between a span and a div?
The div tag is used to divide section of a webpage and a span tag is used to divide up text.

What is the doctype tag, and where does it go?

It goes at the very top of the HTML file. It tells the browser what version of HTML you are writing the document in.

Lesson 2

Assignment 1

Explain what it means when we say that CSS is responsible for presentation (vs. HTML, which is responsible for content)?

CSS adds color, size, columns, typography, images and layout

What is a selector? What is an element? How are they related in CSS?

The CSS selector is the HTML element we want to affect.

What is the general form for a CSS declaration (HINT: It’s a combination of the terms value, selector, property).


What is a descendant selector, and how does it work?

Descendant selectors are similar to family trees; you start with the parent element you wish to select, add a space, and continue naming any interior elements until you’re arrived at the specific element you wish to select.

Assignment 2

How would you implement inline styles?

<p style="color:#fff;">text</p>

How would you implement internal styles?

p { color:#fff; }

How do you link to an external style sheet?

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheet.css" />

Why is it generally a good idea to avoid inline styles?
Because it defeats the point of CSS, you would have to go back through everything to make style changes.

Lesson 3

Assignment 3

For a given styled div element, what would you expect the following margin settings to do:

div { margin: 10px; }
10px of space on the outside of the div (every side)

div { margin: 10px 10px;}
10px of space above and below the div

div { margin: 10px 10px 20px 5px;}
10px of space above the div, 10px of space to the right of the div, 20px of space below the div and 5px of space to the left of the div.

Explain the difference between the following values for the display property: block, inline-block, inline, none.

none: Turns off the display of an element (it has no effect on layout); all descendant elements also have their display turned off. The document is rendered as though the element did not exist.
inline: The element generates one or more inline element boxes.
block: The element generates a block element box.
inline-block: Basically, it’s a way to make elements inline, but preserving their block capabilities such as setting width and height, top and bottom margins and paddings etc.

What does the clear property do, and when would you use it?

return the document to its normal flow after floating

Explain the difference between absolute and relative positioning.

The relative value allows you to use box offset properties such as top, right, bottom and left. The absolute value breaks the element from the normal flow of a document.

What is the effect of setting a negative top margin on an element?

The element will be pulled up on the page.

Lesson 5

Assignment 1

What’s the difference between an HTML element and tag?

Elements are designators that define objects within a page, including structure and content. Some of the more popular elements include h1 through h6, p, a, div, span, strong, and em.
Elements are often made of multiple sets of tags, identified as opening and closing tags. Opening tags mark the beginning of an element, such as <div>. Closing tags mark the end of an element and begin with a forward slash, such as </div>.

What’s the difference between a relative and absolute path, and when should you use the former instead of the latter?

A relative path is used to point to something on the same computer or server. An absolute path is used to point to something on another computer or server.

Why would you often want to include multiple options when setting the font-family property for, say, the body element in your CSS?

Because the font you use might not be on your users’ computers.

Lesson 6

Assignment 1

How would you implement a gradient background for a given div?

 div {
 background: #70bf32;
 background: url('linear-gradient.png') 0 0 repeat-x;
 background: -webkit-linear-gradient(#a1e048, #6a942f);
 background: -moz-linear-gradient(#a1e048, #6a942f);
 background: -ms-linear-gradient(#a1e048, #6a942f);
 background: -o-linear-gradient(#a1e048, #6a942f);
 background: linear-gradient(#a1e048, #6a942f);

How would you use an image as a bullet in an unordered list?

 li {
 background: url('tick.png') 0 0 no-repeat;
 list-style: none;
 padding-left: 20px;

What’s the point of including the alt attribute in any and all img elements appearing in your HTML?

The alt attribute value is displayed in place of the image should the image not be available. Also, the alt text is the cursor tooltip text that may be shown when hovering over the image.

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